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Official name: 	Mars-96
Launch Date: 	16 Nov 1996
Launch Time: 	20:48:52.795 UTC
Launch Place: 	Baykonur
Launcher: 	Proton-K + Block D-2



Flight Profile Timeline
EventsTime, seconds since lift-offRelative velocity, mpsHeight, kmLatitudeLongitude
Lift-off command -2.800 0 46d02'22N63d01'58E
Lift-off 0.000 0 46d02'22N63d01'58E
100% of 1st stage engines thrust 1.607 0.008 46.04N 63.03E
Maximum velocity head 66.00459.5 11.2 46.10N 63.03E
2nd stage engine ignition 118.941551.3 39.4 46.26N 63.48E
1st stage separation 123.291677.9 42.5 46.29N 63.55E
Payload fairing separation 185.002151.2 78.2 46.74N 64.83E
3rd stage engine ignition 327.744349.3 119.5 48.36N 70.06E
2nd stage separation 331.144417.6 120.6 48.41N 70.24E
Command on the payload separation 583.297202.4 144.7 51.49N 89.02E
Payload (Block D-2 + spacecraft + adapter + lower casing + middle casing) separation 583.427202.4 144.7 51.49N 89.07E
Middle casing separation 638.42- - - -
1st ignition of the Block D-2 main engine's launching provision system(SOZ) 643.427188.1 155.6 51.71N 95.14E
1st ignition of the Block D-2 main engine 942.427175.3 166.0 48.07N 123.87E
75% of the Block D-2 main engine thrust; SOZ burn-out 942.847191.9 165.9 48.06N 123.91E
Block D-2 main engine burn-out 1038.947519.9(Vabs=7843.1) 160.1 45.32N 131.99E
2nd ignition of the SOZ engine 3833.817485.8 163.2 38.96S 46.56W
Payload entry into the Earth's shadow 4032.00- - - -
2nd ignition of the Block D-2 main engine 4132.817488.0 159.5 25.12S 29.88W
75% of the Block D-2 main engine thrust; SOZ burn-out 4133.237488.1 159.5 25.09S 29.86W
SOZ separation 4136.817502.5 159.5 24.92S 29.69W
Block D-2 main engine burn-out 4661.9810385.3 435.1 7.16N 4.79W
Block D-2/Mars-96 separation 4678.0410361.6(Vabs=10684.8)466.7 8.27N 3.97W
Spacecraft's low-level thrust engine ignition for providing of main engine burn 4692.9810337.0 497.9 9.30N 3.20W
Spacecraft's main engine burn 4747.9810237.5 626.8 12.96N 0.41W
75% of the spacecraft main engine thrust 4750.6810234.0 633.7 13.14N 0.28W
Command on spacecraft main engine burn-out 4921.5910384.2 1183.623.54N 8.41E
Insertion of the spacecraft on a trajectory tothe Mars 4923.7610379.7(Vabs=10702.9)1192.023.66N 8.52E
Spacecraft exit from the Earth's shadow 6280.00- - - -



Launch Profile Overview

1 - Booster phase
2 - Block D-2 1st burn
3 - Block D-2 2nd burn
4 - Spacecraft main engine burn



Map of Launch Ground Track

 1  - Payload (Block D-2 + spacecraft + adapter + lower casing + middle casing) 
      separation.
 2  - 1st ignition of the Block D-2 main engine launch provision  sistem (SOZ).
 3  - 1st ignition of the Block D-2 main engine.
 4  - Block D-2 main engine burn-out.
 5  - 2nd ignition of the SOZ engine.
 6  - 2nd ignition of the Block D-2 main engine.
 7  - Block D-2 main engine burn-out.
 8  - Block D-2/Mars-96 separation. 
 9  - Spacecraft's  low-level  thrust  engine  ignition  for providing of main 
      engine burn.
10 - Spacecraft's main engine burn.
11 - Spacecraft's main  engine  burn-out.  Insertion  of  the  spacecraft on a 
     trajectory to the Mars.






Event State Vectors For Satellite Observers

Nominal post-launch events vectors for satellite observers
( for Nov 16, 20:48:52.752 launch opportunity)

Events are:
Block D-2 main engine cut-off #1 (BECO #1) after 1st burn. Parking orbit vector.   
150.9x166.0, 51.56 deg, 87.477 min

Start of the Block D-2 main engine 2nd burn (SBME#2).                              
152.8x166.3, 51.56 deg, 87.497 min

SOZ motors separation from the Block D-2 (SOZS). Orbit vector for two SOZ motors.  
157.7x206.5, 51.56 deg, 87.988 min

Block D-2 main engine cut-off #2 (BECO #2) after 2nd burn.                         
652.1x308244.5, 51.76 deg, 7 d 10 h 28 min

Mars-96 spacecraft separation from the Block D-2 (BSEP). Block D-2 orbit vector.   
660.0x309325.9, 51.76 deg, 7 d 11 h 23 min

Mars-96 spacecraft main engine cut-off (SECO). Hyperbolic escape trajectory vector.

Reference  coordinate  frame  is  J2000 inertial reference system ( +Z2000  is 
normal to the Mean Earth Equator of Epoch J2000; +X2000  is  parallel  to  the 
Mean Earth Vernal Equinox of Epoch  J2000; +Y2000  completes  the right-handed 
system), where the Epoch of J2000 is the Julian Ephemeris Date 2451545.0.

For those who would like to use B1950 vector a single transformation matrix is 
presented. It can  be  used  to  convert  from  B1950  based  ephemeris  to  a 
corresponding J2000  based  one  and  vice  versa. B1950 is inertial reference 
system ( +Z1950 is normal to the Mean Earth Equator  of Epoch B1950; +X1950 is 
parallel to the Mean Earth Vernal Equinox of Epoch B1950; +Y1950 completes the 
right-handed system), where the Epoch of B1950  is  the  Julian Ephemeris Date 
2433282.423357

   | 0.9999256791774783 -0.0111815116763724 -0.0048590038154553 |
A= | 0.0111815116959975  0.9999374845751042 -0.0000271625775175 |
   | 0.0048590037714450 -0.0000271704492210  0.9999881946023742 |

X_J2000=A *X_B1950
X_B1950=AT*X_J2000

where X, Y, Z either X, Y, Z coordinates or Vx, Vy, Vz velocity components.
EventDateTime, UTCX, kmY, kmZ, kmVx, km/sVy, km/sVz, km/s
BECO#116.11.9621:06:13.696-3776.1492646.729 4619.926-6.095322-4.131954-2.614969
SBME#216.11.9621:57:45.562 5908.491-428.635-2756.298 2.781540 5.169820 5.152905
SOZS 16.11.9621:57:49.562 5919.556-407.933-2735.635 2.751391 5.181815 5.178972
BECO#216.11.9622:06:36.732 6212.6272669.722 862.110-1.802765 6.376021 8.402991
BSEP 16.11.9622:06:50.792 6186.5082759.043 980.156-1.912021 6.328447 8.387033
SECO 16.11.9622:10:56.515 5499.8154228.589 3021.075-3.614126 5.703135 8.289463



Determining of the Block D-2 Decay Point

2nd  ignition of the Block D-2 didn't took place due  to  some  reasons  which 
should be determined by a special group. Mass of the Block D-2 with fuel after 
separation  of  the spacecraft was around 14300 kg (dry mass 1900 kg), mass of 
the spacecraft was 6825 kg. According to the Block D-2 timing diagram the fuel 
remaining  had  to be  venting in case of the spacecraft separation. Since the 
spacecraft SEPARATED from the Block D-2, mass of the Block had been decreasing 
during  next  few  orbits. This  fact  had  been indirectly confirmed with the 
estimations  of  ballistic coefficient during orbit determinations from ground 
stations measurements on first 5 orbits.

Following  trajectory  measurements  were  received  from   tracking  stations 
operated by the Russian Military Space Forces (time is DMV = UTC + 3h,
date is Nov 17):

Orbit #Tracking StationMeasurement Time Frame
1OKIK-13 (Ulan-Ude) 00:00:18 - 00:01:04
1OKIK-15 (Ussuriysk) 00:04:29 - 00:07:32
2OKIK-7 (Barnaul) 01:25:00 - 01:31:56
2OKIK-12 (Kolpashevo)01:24:00 - 01:30:56
2OKIK-13 (Ulan-Ude) 01:30:55 - 01:34:50
3OKIK-14 (Schyolkovo)02:50:42 - 02:55:15
3OKIK-12 (Kolpashevo)02:55:00 - 03:01:25
3OKIK-7 (Barnaul) 02:55:00 - 03:02:28
4OKIK-14 (Schyolkovo)04:21:18 - 04:26:27
5OKIK-14 (Schyolkovo)05:52:20 - 05:56:32
After processing of these trajectory measurements following orbital state vectors were obtained in the KIAM Ballistic Center:
Orbit #Date,YY/MM/DDTime,DMVX,kmY,kmZ,kmXdot,km/sYdot,km/sZdot,km/sSb
296/11/17 01:05:43.7046436.67871-1158.670240.000000.7697198784.30816688 6.112722040.0070
396/11/17 02:33:11.5335516.60475-3511.325380.000002.34547607 3.69521432 6.113297470.0076
496/11/17 04:00:38.6163773.98632-5339.687420.000003.57133794 2.53066138 6.113490140.0086
596/11/17 05:28:05.0881468.61989-6370.546340.000004.26493244 0.9885081056.114005630.0103
Orbit #Nodal period,minIncl,degHmin,kmHmax,km
287.463551.5516143.64169.61
387.452551.5525143.39168.87
487.442751.5518142.89168.25
587.427451.5493142.45167.24
Note. Heights are counted above the Earth's ellipsoid surface. After 5th orbit Block D-2 was not in sight from Russian ground tracking stations till Nov 17 evening (orbit 13). But chemical batteries had discharged and active communications was not restored. Since this time tracking was provided with radar sensors operated by the Russian Space Surveillance Center (SSC). After processing own measurements SSC obtained following orbital vectors which were sent to MCC (Mission Control Center in Korolev, Moscow region) and KIAM Ballistic Centers. These vectors (EFG) were used for determinations of the Block D-2 decay point.
Orbit #Date,YY/MM/DDTime,DMVX,kmY,kmZ,kmXdot,km/sYdot,km/sZdot,km/s
1696/11/17 21:28:22.7105106.34876 4053.785570.00000-2.73248068 3.431546666.12314340
1796/11/17 22:55:27.2616256.55898 1823.863910.00000-1.23401630 4.211320996.12413927
1896/11/18 00:22:28.0216479.14440-670.6128830.00000 0.4465784354.366942956.12567753
1996/11/18 01:49:23.5275742.84087-3059.693350.00000 2.06111927 3.879720266.12945473
2096/11/18 03:16:12.0924161.22493-4985.830410.00000 3.37653115 2.821941866.13704676
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Orbital Information Group (OIG) had providing TLE's from U.S. Space Command for public access during all the day of Nov 17. Here is all TLE sets for the Block D-2 (ID 1996-064A, SpaceCom #24656). 1 24656U 96064A 96322.22419506 .05925615 12441-4 10000-3 0 27 2 24656 51.5257 15.7496 0011754 195.8405 163.9890 16.47046585 59 1 24656U 96064A 96322.46689235 .03446689 12560-4 48899-4 0 39 2 24656 51.5251 14.3524 0010353 193.1058 166.9712 16.48166778 97 1 24656U 96064A 96322.52750717 .03882494 12559-4 51023-4 0 40 2 24656 51.5241 14.0069 0009452 194.5731 165.5032 16.48693178 109 1 24656U 96064A 96322.58809741 .03869138 12586-4 47202-4 0 53 2 24656 51.5213 13.6508 0007694 204.7974 155.2667 16.49286694 113 1 24656U 96064A 96322.70920078 .05053773 12602-4 47595-4 0 61 2 24656 51.5372 12.9538 0007989 202.1388 157.9001 16.50809267 134 1 24656U 96064A 96322.76971714 .06024909 12616-4 48562-4 0 71 2 24656 51.5319 12.6052 0008703 210.0700 150.0408 16.51737766 145 1 24656U 96064A 96322.83017895 .06882682 12657-4 47869-4 0 85 2 24656 51.5193 12.2621 0007930 221.3916 138.6508 16.52761788 154 1 24656U 96064A 96322.83017941 .06646711 12657-4 46654-4 0 90 2 24656 51.5194 12.2673 0007622 218.1526 141.8966 16.52721283 151 1 24656U 96064A 96322.89062639 .07626927 12682-4 45415-4 0 102 2 24656 51.5229 11.9148 0007504 214.7640 145.3413 16.53844783 160 1 24656U 96064A 96322.89061285 .11793689 12720-4 64686-4 0 118 2 24656 51.5221 11.9148 0006904 225.0514 135.0329 16.54450754 164 1 24656U 96064A 96322.89060726 .11535862 12720-4 63566-4 0 121 2 24656 51.5231 11.9144 0006875 225.2180 134.8300 16.54419645 169 1 24656U 96064A 96323.01130778 .13328068 12842-4 45328-4 0 133 2 24656 51.4998 11.2010 0005797 231.1092 129.2833 16.58057739 180 Taking into account all available orbital information following decay data was calculated. These data was agreed between SSC, MCC and KIAM. Atmosphere entry point: Nov 18, 01:13 UTC, 42.2 S, 161.3 E Splashdown point: Nov 18, 01:20 UTC, 50.9 S, 168.1 W Uncertainty of splashdown point: from 01:10 UTC, 33.0 S, 147.2 E to 01:24 UTC, 50.2 S, 140.7 W It should be noted that uncertainty of splashdown point time and position caused by (in order of the uncertainty value decreasing): - absence of ground stations for making of direct measurements in zone of event; - uncertainty of the Block D-2 atmospheric decay model; - uncertainty of atmosphere dencity, pressure and winds velocity models for altitude from 120km to sea level; - errors of orbit determinations. Few orbits prior to natural decay estimation for the Block D-2 landing point was in Central Australia and only two orbits priot to the decay event point closed to presented above was obtained.

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АРХИВ БЦ ИПМ: | Гранат | Interball | Марс-96

cодержание, дизайн, оформление, техническая поддержка: Денис Тучин   Copyright 2002-2019



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